Tuesday, June 10, 2014


The following is a paper I wrote for a theology class.  It concerns (obviously) the role of the Gentile within the contemporary Church.  Please feel free to attempt to disagree.  "Iron sharpens Iron".

The Role of The Gentile at K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim

When Rabbi Jones assigned this task to me of writing a policy statement defining the role of Gentiles at K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim (The Congregation of Fish out of Water) my wife suggested to me that “Gentiles should turn on the lights”. Now some of you may have thought that funny. Others among you may not have gotten the joke. The joke is to underscore the truth that Jewish culture is and has been, ever since the time of the first diaspora, an evolution of change resulting from the impact of the culture of the people among whom the Jewish community find itself as it interplays with synagogue as well as explicit rejection of synagogue life. (Actually Biblically speaking, Ha-goyim were always having some sort of cultural impact upon ha-Bnay Yisrael even prior to the diaspora.) I referred to the “explicit rejection of synagogue life” because some Jews have actually found the synagogue distasteful or the rules and regulations associated with frumer observance to be too burdensome to practice. Consequently, some Jews, 'though educated in the Y'shoov's of Lithuania, Poland and Russia went on, not to be religious, but reactionary Communists or secular Zionists. Others intermarried and attempted to get lost within the culture in which they found themselves. Hitler demonstrated that that was far more difficult to accomplish than was first anticipated.1

Jewish identity has even withstood utter rejection of Torah observance. The Infamous “Trefa Banquet of 1883 put on by the more radical elements of the Reformed Jewish Theological Seminary to shock more observant Jews by presenting them with shrimp cocktail for dinner, highlights this point.2

Getting back to my wife's joke... still others among you may have thought it offensive. That's because observant non-Y'shua believing Jews have at times in history employed “Shabbos Goyim” to perform necessary services deemed, nevertheless, to be “work” and thus, activities that are forbidden according to Rabbinic halacha for a Jew to be engaged in on the Sabbath. Although the notion of a “Shabbos Goy” is a contemporary inside joke among Jews of today, to illustrate the point that culture evolves, the Jews of Russia at the dawn of the 20th century, by virtue of their poverty and constant confrontation with anti-Semitism wouldn't have even dreamed of the concept of a “Shabbos Goy”. In this context The term “goy” as the one who performs servile work on the Sabbath, has been and could be interpreted to be pejorative. Yet it is the product of the outworking of what might be regarded as a nit-picky Rabbinic halacha as it manifests itself in culture. Truly it has served to keep the Jew distinct but not necessarily in an admirable sort of way. But lest I digress, Rabbinic halacha is not the topic of this policy statement but certainly a worthy of a topic for discussion at another time.

The pejorative attitude referred to however, must be forbidden in our fellowship. Within the confines of K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim, Gentiles must be held in high esteem . In fact, according to Rav Shaul's admonition each of us is to regard one another as more important than him(her)self3. That rule must hold regardless of our skills, ethnicity, knowledge or background. In G-ds economy Jews are incomplete without Gentiles and visa-verse. Arguably one of the greatest Jews who ever lived, David HaMelech, who is unanimously regarded as a Jew if there ever was one, nevertheless, happened to be the descendent of a number of Gentile women. Ruth was adopted into Ha Mishpacha Yisrael in spite of the fact that her ethnicity, that of being a Moabite, was recorded as one of the most despised in Torah4. Another Gentile ancestor of David HaMelech, by the name of Rahab was instrumental in helping Yisrael, under the leadership of Yehoshua, to defeat Jericho. Going back even further, in the ancestry of David HaMelech, Tamar, a Canaanite, gave birth to Perez. David HaMelech, of course, was declared by HaShem, Himself, to be the ancestral father of HaMoshiach Y'shua. Clearly our righteous Messiah has a significant amount of Gentile blood in Him!

Our people were not alone in the wilderness after they'd left Egypt. They were accompanied by a “mixed multitude”. Who knows the number of mixed marriages that may have taken place during the ensuing 40 years?

Once in the land of promise, HaEretz, there were always Gerim (strangers or sojourners) living among the people. Moses had laid down certain laws concerning them. They were required to observe Yom HaKippurim5. The burnt offerings they performed were specifically to be conducted at the doorway of ha-Mikdal (Presumably as a deterrent to idolatry)6. They were to abstain from the consumption of blood7. They were to abstain from sexual immorality8. They were to abstain from consumption of meat that died of itself9. Despite these particular rules and prohibitions, the needs of the ger dwelling in Eretz Yisrael were to be met. Furthermore HaShem specifically expresses a passionate love for ha-Ger10. A Yisraeli can, if poor, sell himself to a ger however, if possible, it is preferable that he be redeemed from the ger by his family. This implies that ha-ger was able to acquire wealth while in haEretz11. The children of gerim can be bought from their parents as slaves and, rather than receiving freedom at the time of jubilee which was required to be the case among the legitimate b'nai Yisrael, be kept as slaves from one generation to the next12. The alien or ger could offer sacrifice in the same manner as any Yisraeli13. In essence, the same chukah that applies to the Yisraeli applies to the ger14. He was to observe HaShabbos.15 He was to observe Shavuoth and Sukkoth and to rid his home of chametz during Pesach.16

The rights and privileges of ha-ger differed from those of haYisraeli in at least two specific ways worth mentioning here. The first way was that unlike haYisraeli, his children could be sold into slavery throughout generations in perpetuity. The second way was that he was not free to observe Pesach. If he wanted to observe Pesach he had to submit to circumcision. This would, in effect, make him Ben Yisrael17.

The reason for this unequal treatment of ha-ger as opposed to the indigent Yisraeli, as far as slavery is concerned, is because haYisraeli had once been a slave in Egypt but had now been brought out of Egypt so that he can be a servant of HaShem. Such was not the case with ha-ger18. Does this rule apply to ha-ger today? Putting aside the obvious reality that enslavement is not relevant in a culture where slavery is not permissible, It ought not even be an issue in any Y'shua believing environment even in countries where slavery is practiced. Paul addressed this in his letter to Philemon, not commanding but pleading with Philemon to treat his runaway slave, Onesimus, as a brother in Messiah19. What may have been the case specifically for the relationship between Onesimus and Philemon, however, can easily be generalized to slavery as an institution. If indeed, Yisrael's redemption from Egyptian slavery by means of the blood of the lamb on the entrance to the home, was a foreshadowing of Messiah's blood shed as an atonement for anyone who was to apply that blood to his heart, than the Gentile (or ger) too, has now been bought with a price to serve the Living G-d20. As was the case with haYisraeli being exonerated from slavery by virtue of HaShem's redemption on his behalf, so also should the Gentile who has been bought with the price of the blood of the Messiah.

Concerning the need for ha-ger to be circumcised in order to celebrate Pesach... does this apply to the Gentile member of K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim? In other words, should a Gentile, therefore, be circumcised in order to be allowed access to this rite and privilege and thus enjoy full fellowship with Jews as well as HaShem? The answer is definitively “NO”... certainly not as a result of thinking that by doing so they are fulfilling a commandment given to them by HaShem! Shaul warned adamantly against this. In Galatians 5:2-3 he said

Behold I, Paul, say to you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will be of no benefit to you. And I testify again to every man who receives circumcision, that he is under obligation to keep the whole Law.”21

Circumcision actually predates Mosaic law. The rite of circumcision was actually given to Avraham Avinu in Genesis 17.

This is My covenant, which you shall keep, between Me and you and your descendants after you: every male among you shall be circumcised. And you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be the sign of the covenant between Me and you.  And every male among you who is eight days old shall be circumcised throughout your generations, a servant who is born in the house or who is bought with money from any foreigner, who is not of your descendants.  A servant who is born in your house or who is bought with your money shall surely be circumcised; thus shall My covenant be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.22

The rite of circumcision was to be conducted exclusively by males who were descended from Avraham Avinu upon themselves and upon all the males in their households whether they were natural born heirs or slaves. From the text it is clear that this rite is not limited strictly to Jews but to Arabs as well. However, it is clearly not to be conducted by Gentiles who are specifically non-Semites.

The death and resurrection of Messiah Y'shua, just as it freed ha-ger from perpetual slavery within the context of the Jewish boundary (case in point ha-eretz, the land), by virtue of His having purchased the Gentile, has likewise eliminated the need for the Gentile to be circumcised in order to observe ha-Pesach and inherit equal status in the kingdom of Ha-Shem as Jews.23

This places the new ger... the Gentile, on a totally equal footing with the Jew. Both are free from slavery to sin24. Both are free to enjoy unfettered fellowship with one another and with HaShem. And all of this was accomplished by Messiah having purchased both Jew and Gentile with His blood.

This, however, created a new dynamic among those who might be defined as HaK'hilat HaAm HaShem (The assembly of the people of God, or the ekklesia). As a result of this phenomenon debate has arisen over the next two millenia. Is HaShem through with the Jews? Are Jews and Gentiles supposed to become one “new man” and form some sort of amalgam called the Church?

When Judaizers came to Antioch demanding that Gentiles who had come to believe in Y'shua be circumcised, they were arguing that Gentiles, in order to fulfill their new found faith, had to become Jews. Yaakov and the rest of the ziknay b'Y'rushalayim, after pouring over the scriptures and hearing the testimonies of Shaul and Cephas with regard to their experiences with Gentiles receiving faith in Y'shua, concluded that the only things required of Gentiles was that they “abstain from things contaminated by idols and from fornication and from what is strangled and from blood”25. These four stipulations were included among the demands upon ha-gerim in Yisrael that we'd already looked at in Vayik'ra.

In order to emphasize the reality of this equality before HaShem, Shaul makes a number of assertions which can and have been historically misunderstood. For example, he says “Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing but obeying the commandments of God is everything”.26 He also says “For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision counts for anything; the only thing that counts is faith working through love.” 27 Elsewhere he says “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Messiah Y'shua”.28 Such texts are used by supersessionists to support their presumption that Jewishness is no longer necessary and the church is now one giant amalgam of the people of God. Dr. David Rudolph, in his dissertation “A Jew to the Jews”Contours in Pauline Flexibility in 1 Corinthians 9:19-23”, argues that Shaul's writing style must be considered. He argues that Paul uses hyperbole. In other words saying “circumcision is nothing” is not to be taken literally but is language common to Shaul when he compares one thing to another It also happens to be a very Jewish means for communicating. In other words, compared to salvation in Y'shua, circumcision is nothing. However that doesn't mean that it is to literally imply that it is nothing.29 Dr. Rudolph also argues that Shaul's use of the word for “one” in Galatians 3:28 can also have a definition similar to the Hebrew equivalent of echod.30 Also, although Dr. Rudolph refers to Shaul's mentioning “male and female” in the same breath as “Jew or Gentile”31 in Galatians 3:28 such a phraseology, at face value, renders the assumption that the common interpretation, namely that there is neither Jew nor Gentile, utterly preposterous for drawing any definitive conclusions. It is important to note that what Shaul is saying in these texts is that before HaShem, all are equal before Him. We are saved by the same means. HaShem's love for us is so boundless that while each of us individually was yet a sinner, Messiah died for us.32 The rewards and privileges that we have before G-d are all the same.
A paradox seems to exist with regard to 1 Corinthians 7:19. “Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of HaShem”. This text in particular bears mentioning. Obviously circumcision is most definitely a command of G-d given specifically to physical descendants of Avraham and it was to be conducted in perpetuity33. To the Jew it is an important command. Shaul's audience, here, however, is primarily Gentiles and he is continuously trying to dissuade them from the temptation of being circumcised. Why is it so important that Gentiles not be circumcised if Shaul strongly identified, himself, as a Jew? Furthermore why did he circumcise Timothy in Acts 16 if he wanted to discourage circumcision?

Yet, if Shaul is to be taken at face value at least one commandment of G-d is “nothing”...irrelevant. To the Jew how can it be nothing on the one hand, and yet Yaakov in the Book of Acts insists that Gentiles not be required to practice circumcision unlike the Jew who is required to do so? And if Jews are required to do so, does that not follow, according to traditional supersessionist exegesis that Cepha and Shaul and Timothy and all the other Sh'lichim were, in fact, not Christians? Nothing could be more preposterous.

It must be understood that to the Jew, nothing is more important than his identity as a Jew. Most Gentiles have no identity to give up in order to establish a relationship with G-d through Y'shua. A Muslim may give up being a Muslim but he still has a nationality to fall back on. He might still be a Persian or an Arab. On the other hand, many Jews are of the opinion that if they were to come to believe in Messiah Y'shua they would give up their identity. Church history has not failed at communicating this canard to the Jewish people. From the 1st Counsel of Nicea where Easter was officially established as the replacement for Passover, to the 2nd Counsel of Nicea where Jews who wanted to identify with their Messiah were required to utterly denude themselves of any trappings of their tradition or identity34 the church has blatantly insisted upon taking stances that have served to rebuild the wall of partition between Jew and Gentile as well as Jew and his own Messiah.

Despite the apparent fact that being a Jew or being a Gentile “is nothing” Paul still identified himself in more than one instance as a Jew.35 Furthermore why did he circumcise Timothy36 and not Titus?37 There was a noticeable distinct difference between the two. Timothy was the son of a Jewish mother. Titus was Greek. He had no Jewish blood in him. Paul, while discussing the issue of marriage to illustrate a point that those who are married should stay married makes an aside statement that “those who are uncircumcised should remain uncircumcised and those who are circumcised should remain circumcised”38.

It is evident that despite the reality that the body of Moshiach is “one new man” there is, nevertheless, an imperative to maintain a distinction between Jew and Gentile. However the existence of this distinction is becoming less and less obvious within the Messianic-Jewish community. Jacob Fronczak, in his essay entitled “Jew and Gentile – Blurring the Distinction” notes that Gentiles, in their process of attempting to live a frumer life-style prove to be offensive to many Jewish believers by “treading on their turf” so to speak.39 Fronczak points to two schools of thought concerning this problem. One is held by Mark Kinzer who, based upon Matthew 23:1-3a argues that the Am Haaretz are to adhere to the teachings of the Rabbis who are the official interpreters of Torah.40 Fronczak opines that if, as advocated by Kinzer, Jews establish a separate wing of the ekklesia in which they are free to carry out their covanental obligations as a uniquely Jewish body this would solve the problem of distinguishing between Jew and Gentile”41 However, this would not be beneficial at all if Gentiles were not allowed to continue to attend such congregations. Furthermore, what is or should be acceptable rabbinically halachic practices are still an issue fo debate.

On the other end of this spectrum is Michael Brown who argues that “if we listen and learn well [to Rabbinic Judaism], we will no longer have our faith!” Both scholars have a point. It is our opinion that Rabbinic dictates have played an invaluable role in the survival and culture of the Jewish people throughout the Millenia. Nevertheless, they are not haBisurah. They must be held onto loosely and especially Gentiles who might wish to indulge to excess be discouraged.

The ekklesiology of K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim therefore begins with a line in the sand. A Jew is by definition, someone with at least one Jewish parent who was accordingly raised by at least one Jewish guardian or parent. Anyone else, by this definition, is a Gentile. One might boast of having Jewish ancestry. One might be entirely Jewish but may have been adopted by Gentiles. Sadly, one might yearn to thus be identified as a Jew. A point that must be driven home at K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim is what Rav Shaul said... “Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing but obeying the commandments of God is everything.” Giving heed to this admonition requires humility. Being Jewish, therefore, is no status to which one ought to aspire. By so aspiring, the Gentile places this as an idol before Moshiach. Furthermore, there is a utilitarian reason for this which will soon be addressed.

Earlier we made reference to ha-ger. Even as there was ha-ger in Eretz-Yisrael at the time of Y'hoshua, HaMishpotim v HaMalachim, there are gerim today in the Ekklesia. They are the Messianic Jews who, repelled by excessively frumer activities particularly of Gentiles, avoid the Messianic Synagogue in deference to the “Church” or the synagogue where halacha may or may not be encouraged to varying degrees (depending upon denomination) but where belief in Y'shua is discouraged. In most Messianic Synagogues one sees Gentiles trying to educate Jews concerning what it means to be Jewish. Hence, a Messianic Jew walking into a Messianic Synagogue for the first time or perhaps occasionally perceives that effort is being made for him to feel like a guest. He is not a guest. The Messianic Synagogue should be his home!

Now, exactly why was this specific line in the sand chosen? First of all, the need for the definition of the line has changed. Ezra and Nehemiah had a line in the sand. It was based solely on lineage irregardless of faith or relationship to HaShem. At the time of the return from exile Ezra commanded the “sending away of non-Jewish wives. 42 As a result of Hellenism, changes were made to Judaism so as to enable it to adapt it to the new world view posited by the cultural renaissance of the time. Techniques of exegesis were employed so as to harmonize scripture with a Hellenistic world view as much as was possible.43 Consequently even as Hellenism sought converts, Jewishness had now become a religion which sought it's own converts whom Ha B'rit hadasha calls “Proselytes”. Many early Proselytes probably became Jews simply adopting a Jewish life-style.44 Although the definition of a Jew was still relatively distinct, Hellenism had converted it into a religion and the lines of definition between Jew and Gentile had grown significantly less defined. After the destruction of Beit HaMikdosh in 70 CE, the definition of a Jew changed again. One's Jewish identity now had become a function of one's maternal parentage. Jews stayed married primarily within the community for the next 1500 years or so. Persecution as well as the door being shut to the “Christian” alternative helped to encourage this pattern. With prosperity and religious freedom, particularly in America, came intermarriage. Various denominations and schools of thought treated this growing phenomenon of intermarriage in different ways. All, however, have relied on some sort of a “conversion” in order to provide legitimacy to the marriage as being Jewish. On the other hand, there also is the phenomenon of the utterly secular Jew who marries a Gentile outside of one of the accepted religious communities. By definition, that individual is a Jew. He would probably be universally accepted as such by every branch of Judaism. Even if he allegedly became a Buddhist, he would still be a Jew... perhaps a “bad Jew”, but a Jew nonetheless. Hence, apart from Hassidism, most of the rest of the Jewish world is growing more and more hazy as far a definition is concerned. This phenomenon might play well into Mark Kinzer's line of thought which calls upon the more frumer and separated lifestyle as the means by which Jewish cohesiveness can be maintained.

Secondly, Conversion is not an option for the Messianic community. Contrary to the opinions of some “Messianic Rabbis”45 an individual has already done as much converting as needed when He or she came to faith in Messiah. Furthermore, Jewishness and Judaism is treated as if it were some sort of honor. Being Jewish is no accomplishment. It just is. The derivation of the concept of conversion is t'shuva which does not mean changing one's religion. It implies repentance and turning one's life from attempting to live as one desires to seeking to live as G-d desires. Furthermore, just as taking on Jewish halachic practice became a fruit of Proselytizing during the Hellenistic period, Gentiles at K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim face the danger of exchanging their faith in Y'shua for Judaism and it's traditions which cannot save. Also, if Y'shua's declaration in Matthew 23:1-3a is, in fact, relevant today (It could have been relevant only for those in Y'shua's time) that declaration was given to Jews not to Gentiles.

Thirdly, the choice of this definition for a line in the sand is based on history and scripture. As we've already noted, King David was descended from Gentile women yet he was identified strongly as a Jew. Coincidentally, even as the definition of a Jew changed with Hellenization and the definition was to become a genealogical tie through the mother, Shaul recognized Timothy to be a Jew by virtue of the fact that he had a Jewish mother. Perhaps Timothy's parents had not acknowledged this reality or thought it to be important. Nevertheless, Shaul thought it important enough to have Timothy circumcised. He also saw this as a witness “on account of the Jews in the region.46 Strictly by virtue of his birth, Timothy could rightly be circumcised whereas Titus could not.

Finally, as alluded to in Acts 16:2, “on account of the Jews in the area”, Timothy was circumcised. By virtue of the fact that Judaism changes and Jewishness changes with the ebb and flow of culture, politics, economy and the like through history, most Jews who no longer comprise the strictly religious community, and in fact, may have only a vague understanding that there might be a God, cannot be rigorously defined by Rabbinically ordained halacha. This halacha has, indeed impacted the culture of all Jews in one way or another whether we are cognizant of it or not. Indeed it has helped the Jew to survive history. Nevertheless, it is not rabbinic halacha that defines the Jew. Above all, it is his genes. Subsequently the Gentile will have a tendency to assume to the contrary that it is Rabbinic halacha that is decisively Jewish by definition, have little or no empathy for authentic Jewish life and attempt to teach the Jew what it means to be Jewish as Jacob Fronczak so accommodatingly pointed out. This is offensive to most Jews. On the other hand, the Jew according to our definition, has his pulse in one way or another upon the ever-evolving Jewish culture around him by virtue of his experience. Either he grew up in it or has at least one parent who grew up in it who influenced him by living it. It is this Jew who would better understand how to make liturgy palatable for the Jew who might attend K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim as well as the culture of the congregation as a whole. There is great debate within the Messianic Jewish community concerning what liturgy and observances are appropriate. This debate is liable to continue for a long time. However, it is this Jew who is best suited for determining that. Shaul warned Timothy about the dangers of enlisting a “new convert” for a position of leadership.47 Nevertheless, such a one should be listened to. He or she is the most likely to have their finger on the cultural pulse of the local Jewish community. Gentiles should be willing to relinquish high profile roles for Jews who are qualified. That doesn't mean that a Gentile can't be an elder or preach and teach on occasion. Undoubtedly such a one has a whole lot to contribute. But deference should be given to Jews in those capacities. What K'hilah Dagim Michkutz LaMayim needs is Gentiles who have the attitude of Jonathan who knew that it was not he but David who was HaShem's anointed.

A biblical note to support the notion of primacy of Jewish leadership and high-profile roles, again can be found in Torah. The role of the Kohen was determined strictly by birth. It was a desirable role because it could be lucrative especially if one corrupted it such as was the case with the sons of Eli.48 No one could play that role except a Kohen. Likewise the high-profile roles within the Messianic congregation should, if at all possible be held by Jews and Jews should determine the relevance of specific liturgical practices. It must also be noted that liturgy can easily be mistaken for piety and righteousness. The new believer or the unbelieving Jewish visitor can, accordingly get the wrong impression of what it means to have a genuine halacha with Y'shua, mistaking religious observance for genuine mitzvotai and ts'dakah.

As implied earlier, it is dangerous for Gentiles to engage excessively in traditional liturgy and practice. It is incumbent upon the leadership of the congregation to prayerfully discern, with the feedback of the other Jews in the congregation, what is of value and what is far-fetched. Undoubtedly this will serve as a platform for lively debate but with prayer and a spirit of accommodation, after the dust settles, agreement can be reached. The final product should be modeled by the Gentile elders as examples for the Gentiles to follow and it should take the path of a less frumer practice not more frumer. The vision described in the next paragraph should be able to serve as motivation for the Gentile to maintain his distinctiveness because he need to know the importance of his distinctiveness as a Gentile.

There's an interesting and certainly controversial but noteworthy outcome that results from the line in the sand proposed in this policy statement. It more adequately falls in line with what it seems Shaul meant by the “body of Messiah” consisting of many parts.49 Imagine, if you will, two different arteries a Jewish artery and a Gentile artery each flowing towards a juncture in a main artery called marriage where some unite as Jew and Gentile, having Jewish offspring (according to our definition which has been determined Biblically). Others unite as two Jews, likewise having Jewish offspring. Others unite as Gentiles whose offspring remains as such. Eventually, according to this paradigm, anyone and everyone has an opportunity for his or her offspring to be Jewish. The identity of the body is maintained as new Jews, with each generation assume high-profile positions and sustenance is given to the body as Jews, by the grace of HaShem join the fold by receiving Y'shua. Even Gentiles will have an opportunity to kvell as they proudly look upon their son and declare “My son the Jew”.

Pamela Eisenbaum made an interesting point in her essay “Is Paul the father of Mysogeny or Anti-Semitsm? She wrote:

Just as in marriage, where people come together ritually in order to create a new family. Christ's sacrifice inaugurated the unity of Jew and Greek. “No longer Jew or Greek” does not, however, mean that Jew and Greek are no longer distinct from one another, so long as the paradigm of “male and female” operates in our reading of this text. The enactment of marriage does not deny the essential difference between woman and man; on the contrary, their complementarity has traditionally been viewed as essential to the creation of the family. Marriage binds the man and woman in a new kind of relationship that entails a reprioritizing of loyalties so that they can build a common life.

Similarly, Jew and Gentile coming together in harmony while remaining distinct is the goal of Paul's mission.50

She noted that perhaps Shaul saw his role as facilitating G-d's desire to turn mankind into a family by which peace could be established.

While Judaism has historically attempted to maintain purity of the Jewish identity through essentially intra-marriage, perhaps Messianic-Judaism, by maintaining a line in the sand concerning our definition of the Jew, can hold onto it's unique identity which more approximately resembles the culture of the evolving non-believing Jewish community while including all members of its “body” as family, literally. It is interesting to speculate that this may, in fact, be the dynamic during the millennium. After all, Hosea said:

Yet the number of Ha B'nay Yisrael will be like the sand of the sea,
hich cannot be measured or numbered; and in the place where it is said to them,
You are not My people,” it will be said to them, You are the sons of the living God.” and the sons of Judah and the sons of Israel will be gathered together, and they will appoint for themselves one leader,and they will go up from the land,
For great will be the day of Jezreel.51

When one is a part of a group of people that he does not merely reckon but knows to be family, he is most certainly less likely to feel like a fish out of water.

  1. “The Dawn of the Century 1900 – 1910” Faith & Fate film series, Berel Wein Destiny Series
  2. Philippians 2:3
  3. Deuteronomy 23:3
  4. Vayik'ra 16:29
  5. Vayik'ra 17:9 The theme of abstinence from idolatry is also stipulated in Lev. 20:2
  6. Vayik'ra 17:10
  7. Vayik'ra 18
  8. Vayik'ra 17:15
  9. D'varim 10:18
  10. Vayik'ra 25:47 ff
  11. Ibid
  12. BaMid'bar 15:14
  13. BaMid'bar 15:15
  14. Sh'mos 20:10, 23:12
  15. D'varim 16:1-22
  16. Sh'mot 12:48
  17. Vayik'ra 25:42
  18. Philemon 10-16
  19. 1 Corinthians 6:20. 7:23
  20. Galatians 5:2-3
  21. B'reyshis 17:10-13
  22. Galatians 3:28
  23. Romans 6:17
  24. Acts 15:20
  25. 1 Corinthians 7:19
  26. Galatians 5:6
  27. Galatians 3:28
  28. Rudolph, David “A Jew to the Jews – Contours in Pauline Flexibility in 1 Corinthians 9:19-23”, p.29.
  29. Ibid p. 31.
  30. Ibid p. 31.
  31. Romans 5:8
  32. B'reyshis 17:10-13
  33. e.g. Romans 9:2, Gal 2:15, Philippeans 3:4-6
  34. Acts 16:2
  35. Galatians 2:3
  36. 1 Corinthians 7:18-20
  37. Ibid
  38. Ibid
  39. Skarsaune, Oskar; In the Shadow of the Temple – Jewish Influences on Early Christianity, Intervarsity Press; Downers Grove, IL ; 2002. p. 39
  40. Ibid p. 36
  41. Ibid p. 40
  42. Acts 16:2
  43. 1 Tiimothy 3:6
  44. 1 Samuel 2:5-8
  45. Ephesians 2:11-16
  46. Eisenbaum, Pamela; Is Paul the father of Mysogeny or Anti-Semitsm?; Cross Currents Winter 2000 – 2001 p. 521
  47. Hosea 1:10-11